Nutrition plays an important role throughout our lives in promoting health and preventing disease. But where we live or how much money we earn can affect our ability to access or afford healthy food choices. Ensuring food security and access to healthy food are key to preventing disparities in a variety of diet-related diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. Research has shown that socioeconomic status, food insecurity and the neighborhood food environment are linked to diet quality and nutrition-related health outcomes. Elucidating the role of these social conditions on diet and nutritional status could help address and prevent diet-related health disparities and promote health equity.